Authors: Dragović, Branko 
Khrennikov, Andrei Yu
Kozyrev, Sergei V.
Mišić, Nataša
Affiliations: Mathematical Institute of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts 
Title: p-Adic mathematics and theoretical biology
Journal: BioSystems
Volume: 199
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2021
Rank: ~M22
ISSN: 0303-2647
DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystems.2020.104288
The principal objective of this article is a brief overview of the main parts of p-adic mathematics, which have already had valuable applications and may have a significant impact in the near future on the further development of some fields of theoretical and mathematical biology. In particular, we present the basics of ultrametrics, p-adic numbers and p-adic analysis, as well as insight into their applications for modeling some cognitive processes, genetic code and protein dynamics. We also argue that ultrametric concepts and p-adic mathematics are natural tools for the viable description of biological systems and phenomena with a hierarchical structure.
Keywords: Biological complexity | Biological information | Cognition | Genetic code | Hierarchical systems | Mathematical biology | p-adic modeling | p-adic numbers | Protein dynamics | Theoretical biology | Ultrametrics

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