Authors: Matijević, Luka 
Title: General variable neighborhood search for electric vehicle routing problem with time-dependent speeds and soft time windows
Journal: International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations
Volume: 14
First page: 275
Last page: 292
Issue Date: 2023
Rank: ~M22
ISSN: 1923-2926
DOI: 10.5267/j.ijiec.2023.2.001
Abstract: 
With the growing environmental concerns and the rising number of electric vehicles, researchers and companies are paying more and more attention to green logistics. This paper studies the Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with time-dependent speeds and soft time windows. The purpose is to minimize the total distance travelled, while penalizing early or late arrivals at the customers’ locations. For this purpose, we formulated the Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) and developed a General Variable Neighborhood Search (GVNS) metaheuristic, an efficient way to tackle this problem. To prove the efficiency of our approach, we tested the GVNS against the Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) algorithm and our MILP model, using a set of available benchmark instances. After an extensive experimental evaluation, we concluded that GVNS can find better quality solutions than other methods considered in this research or the same quality solution in less time.
Keywords: Alternative Fuel Vehicles | Green logistics | Green Vehicle Routing Problem | Metaheuristics | MILP
Publisher: Growing Science

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