Authors: Mihaljević, Miodrag J. 
Affiliations: Mathematical Institute of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts 
Title: A Blockchain Consensus Protocol Based on Dedicated Time-Memory-Data Trade-Off
Journal: IEEE Access
Volume: 8
First page: 141258
Last page: 141268
Issue Date: 30-Jul-2020
Rank: M21
ISSN: 2169-3536
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3013199
Abstract: 
A problem of developing the consensus protocols in public blockchain systems which spend a combination of energy and space resources is addressed. A technique is proposed that provides a flexibility for selection of the energy and space resources which should be employed by a player participating in the consensus procedure. The technique originates from the cryptographic time-memory-data trade-off approaches for cryptanalysis. The proposed technique avoids the limitations of Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Proof-of-Memory (PoM) which require spending of only energy and space, respectively. Also, it provides a flexibility for adjusting the resources spending to the system budget. The proposed consensus technique is based on a puzzle where the problem of inverting one-way function is solved employing a dedicated Time-Memory-Data Trade-Off (TMD-TO) paradigm. The algorithms of the consensus protocol are proposed which employ certain unconstrained and constrained TMD-TO based inversions. Security of the proposed technique is considered based on the probability that the honest pool of nodes generate a longer extension of the blockchain before its update, and a condition on the employed parameters in order to achieve desired security has been derived. Implementation of the proposed technique in Go language and its inclusion as an alternative consensus option in Ethereum platform are shown. Implementation complexity and performance of the proposed consensus protocol are discussed and compared with the ones when PoW and PoM are employed.
Keywords: Blockchain | consensus | proof of work | proof of memory | security
Publisher: IEEE
Project: Advanced artificial intelligence techniques for analysis and design of system components based on trustworthy BlockChain technology - AI4TrustBC 

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